According to the American Heritage Dictionary, “an abortion is the procedure of termination of pregnancy and expulsion of a fetus or an embryo that is incapable of survival. Abortion is known to be any of these procedures that results in the termination and expulsion.” Although this seems to be very insufficient statement for abortion but if we think morally, legally or politically then this topic is quite volatile.
Definition of abortion also includes the terms such as miscarriage or spontaneous abortion along with the normal induced abortion. When the body of a women rejects the fetus or embryo due to any reason, it is known as spontaneous abortion. Mother does not have any control over this accidental process. Reason behind spontaneous abortion depends on the factor when does miscarriage occurs. In most of the cases, spontaneous abortion happens due to abnormalities of an embryo in the first two weeks of pregnancy. It there is a problem in the mothers body due to emotional difficulties, uterine or cervical irregularities, endocrine system disease, diabetes mellitus or hypothyroidism; then spontaneous abortion may occur in the second or third trimesters. In some cases, embryo is not recognized by the immune system of the mother and expells it considering it to be a foreign tissue. The percentage of miscarriage is only found to be in 20% of the cases.
Induced abortion is known as the most common definition of abortion. It is done with the will of the woman who wants abortion. Although there may be multitude of reasons for induced abortion but mainly there are basically two types of abortion, Therapeutic abortion and Elective abortion.
Therapeutic abortion is not considered to be the primary definition of abortion but is very prominent in such cases and is conducted for various medical reasons. Usually such type of therapeutic abortion is underdone when the doctor diagnose that pregnancy or birth could result in danger to the life of the patient. This may be done to avoid risk for physical or mental health.
Elective abortion is an abortion which is conducted on a woman due to her own personal reasons. Many reasons may be behind the decision of a woman such as, religious concerns, cultural concerns, immaturity and financial problems. Some woman choose elective abortion if they are not married or are young and do not want to disclose this to their family. Pregnancy is also terminated by victims of sexual abuse or assault.
Surgical and chemical are the two basic types of induced abortion procedures. Stage of gestation is the factor to decide the surgical procedure. Hysterotomy, Intact Dilation and Extraction, Dilation and Evacuation, Dilation and Curettage, Electric Vacuum Aspiration and Manual Vacuum Aspiration are the basic procedures for surgical abortion. Due to the administration of abortifacient drugs Chemical abortions are done by early induction of labor.
Author: Abhishek Agarwal